Professor and Extension Veterinarian
Roy P.E. Yanong joined the UF Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory (TAL) in 1996. Currently Professor and Extension Veterinarian, Roy provides extension, research, and educational programs in fish health management and aquatic animal health, including on-site veterinary assistance and disease diagnostic support for aquaculturists throughout the state. Roy also works closely with state and federal agriculture and natural resources agencies, veterinarians, and other fish health professionals.
Roy’s long-time interest as a tropical fish hobbyist eventually resulted in a career in fish veterinary medicine. After college, Roy worked at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, studying leukemia (what is now known to be a transmissible neoplasia) in soft-shell clams from Boston Harbor. Two years later, he attended the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine where he concentrated in aquatic animal medicine and received his V.M.D. in May 1992. After graduation from veterinary school, he was hired by 5-D Tropical, Inc., a large ornamental fish farm in Plant City, Florida, where he was quickly immersed into the industry. He worked as staff veterinarian there for four and a half years, immediately prior to joining UF.
Roy’s extension and research programs are applied and industry-driven and concentrated primarily in ornamental and food fish species. Focus areas include baseline health parameters, health management, disease prevention and diagnostics, disease characterization, chemotherapeutics and biologics, and biosecurity. In collaboration with other faculty and staff at UF/IFAS, Roy has been involved with aquatic invertebrate, amphibian, and reptile species health and disease work.
Roy and his colleagues at the TAL, UF/IFAS Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program/SFRC, and the UF College of Veterinary Medicine work collaboratively to promote the advancement of aquatic animal medicine and fish health management through courses, internships, externships, extension and scientific publications, continuing education sessions, and other venues.
Over the years, Roy has participated in numerous local, state, and national aquaculture and fish health-related committees. He is currently the Chair of the Aquatics Working Group for the American Veterinary Medical Association’s (AVMA’s) Panel on Euthanasia; a former member and Chair of the AVMA’s Aquatic Veterinary Medicine Committee; and a past member of the AVMA’s Animal Agriculture Liaison Committee. He is also a founding member, former President, and Executive Board member of the American Association of Fish Veterinarians, and a member of the American Fisheries Society-Fish Health Section, the U.S. Aquaculture Society, and the World Aquaculture Society.
Roy is host of the podcast Aquariumania, the “fishy” part of the PetLifeRadio network.
In his free time, Roy enjoys music (singing, “basic” piano and guitar), fishing, canoeing, kayaking, scuba diving, cycling, sprint triathlons, boot camp workouts, and science fiction, and supporting the local community arts program Winthrop Arts, Inc.
UF/IFAS Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory
1408 24th Street SE
Ruskin, FL 33570
V.M.D., Veterinary Medicine, 1992, University of Pennsylvania
B.A., Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, 1986, Yale University
FAS 6256 - Introduction to Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate Histology
This course teaches basic interpretation of the normal histology (fixed tissue microanatomy and physiology) of fish, bivalves, and corals and introduces common histopathologic (disease) findings.
Katie Lynn Estes - M.F.A.S. Student
Brian E. Joseph - M.F.A.S. Student
Alyssa Erin Lawrence - M.F.A.S. Student
Genevieve D. Patrick - M.S. Student
Ashley Chantelle Shanor - M.F.A.S. Student
Mary Elizabeth Tims - M.F.A.S. Student
Selected Research Publications (2015 - Present)
For the most recent publications, please visit Roy's Google Scholar Profile.
Bullard, S.A., F. Moravec, S.P. Ksepska, M.B. Warren, H.R. Dutton, D.G. Huffman, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2022. Huffmanela cf. huffmani (Nemotada: Trichosomioididae) infecting swim bladder, peritoneum, and gonad of variable platyfish, Xiphophorus variatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Poeciliidae) in Florida; taxonomy, phylogenic analysis and pathological changes. Parasitology Research 121(8):2307-2323.
Lipscomb T.N., A. Durland-Donahou, R.P. Yanong, N.C. Boldt,and M.A. DiMaggio. 2022. Investigations into Early Larval Feeding Practices for the Tiger Barb Puntigrus tetrazona. North American Journal of Aquaculture 84 (1), 53-65.
Koda, S.A., K. Subramaniam, D.B. Pouder, R.P. Yanong, S. Frasca Jr., V.L. Popov, and T.B. Waltzek. 2021. Complete genome sequences of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus isolated from farmed albino rainbow sharks Epalzeorhynchos frenatum in the United States. Virus Genes 57(5): 448-452.
Yanong, R.P.E., Preliminary Investigations into Use of Metomidate for Euthanasia of Ornamental Fishes. 2021. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 33(3):133-138.
Rhody, N.R., N.I. Stacy, J.A. Hernandez, G. Patrick, M.J. Resley, and R.P. Yanong. 2021. Blood Analyte Changes of Wild-Caught Adult Almaco Jack in Resoponse to Acclimation to Recirculating Aquaculture Systems and Hyposalinity Treatment. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 33(2):77-83.
Wright, S.E., N.I. Stacy, R.P. Yanong, R.N. Juhl and G.A. Lewbart. 2021. Hematology and Biochemistry Panel Reference Intervals for Captive Saddleback Clownfish Amphiprion polymnus and Tomato Clownfish A. frenatus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 33(1):3-16.
Cassle, S.E., R.P.E. Yanong, D.B. Pouder, C. Rodriguez, N. Mylniczenko, P.M. Thompson, N.K. Stilwell, K.J. Heym, T. Harmon and N.I. Stacy. 2021. Reference intervals for Blood Analytes of Adult Aquarium-Housed Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 33(1): 33-43.
Weisbrod, T.C., A.B. Jean, A. Childress, D.B. Pouder, J. Castellanos-Gell, N.I. Stacy, H.D.S. Walden, M.M. Garner, R.P.E. Yanong, and R.J. Ossiboff. 2021. Gastrointestinal entamoebiasis in captive anurans in North America. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 143:109-118.
Lovy, J., R.P.E. Yanong, J.M. Stilwell, T.B. Waltzek, J.P. Shelley, D.B. Pouder, J.C. Wolf and A.C. Camus. 2021. Tetra disseminated microsporidiosis: a novel disease in ornamental fish caused by Fusasporis stethaproini n. gen. n. sp. Parasitology Research 120:497-514.
LaDouceur E.E.B., A.N. Cartoceti, J. St. Leger, K. Holder, R.P. Yanong, and R. Kim. 2019. Endocardiosis in Tetras (Family Characiformes). Journal of Comparative Pathology 171: 19-23.
Patrick G., A.M. Tarnecki, N. Rhody, R. Schloesser, K. Main, R. Yanong, R. Francis-Floyd. 2019. Disinfection of almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes) eggs: Evaluation of three chemicals. 2019. Aquaculture Research. 00 (1-9).
Vorbach B.S., H. Chandasana, H. Derendorf, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2019. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) following bath immersion. Aquaculture, 498:12-16.
Warren M.B., H.R. Dutton, N.V. Whelan, R.P.E. Yanong, and S.A. Bullard. 2019. First record of a species of Mermithidae Braun, 1883 infecting a decapod, Palaemon paludosus (Palaemonidae). Journal of Parasitology 105(2): 237-247.
Koda S.A., K. Subramaniam, R. Francis-Floyd, R.P. Yanong, S. Frasca Jr., J.M. Groff, V.L. Popov, W.A. Fraser, A. Yan, S. Mohan, and T.B. Waltzek. 2018. Phylogenomic characterization of two novel members of the genus Megalocytivirus from archived ornamental fish samples. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 130:11-24.
Martony, M., D. Pouder, R. Yanong, Y. Kiryu, J.H. Landsberg, R. Isaza, T. Waltzek, N.I. Stacy, R. Giglio, S. Baker, and R. Francis‐Floyd, R. 2018. Establishing a diagnostic technique for coelomocentesis in the Long‐Spined Sea Urchin Diadema antillarum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 30: 325-331.
Degidio, J.M., R.P.E Yanong, C.L. Ohs, C.A. Watson, E.J. Cassiano and K.P. Bardon. 2017. First feeding parameters of the milletseed butterfly fish, Chaetodon miliaris. Aquaculture Research 49:1087-1094.
Degidio, J., R.P.E. Yanong, C.A. Watson, C.L. Ohs, E.J. Cassiano, K. Barden. 2017. Spawning, embryology, and larval development of the Milletseed Butterflyfish Chaetodon miliaris in the laboratory. North American Journal of Aquaculture 79 (3):205-215.
Pomaranski E.K., S.R. Reichley, R. Yanong, J. Shelley, D.B. Pouder, J.C. Wolf, K.V. Kenelty, B. Van Bonn, F. Oliaro, B. Byrne, K.A. Clothier, M.J. Griffin, A.C. Camus, and E. Soto. 2017 (online). Characterization of spaC-type Erysipelothrix sp. isolates causing systemic disease in ornamental fish. Journal of Fish Diseases.
Vorbach B.S., J.C. Wolf, and R.P. Yanong. 2017. Odontomas in two long-finned ocellaris clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.
Griffin, M.J., S.R. Reichley, T.E. Greenway, S.M. Quiniou, C. Ware, D.X. Gao, P.S. Gaunt, R.P.E. Yanong, D.B. Pouder, J.P. Hawke and E. Soto. 2016. Comparison of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from different hosts and geographic origins. Journal of Fish Diseases, 39: 947–969.
Bourtis, C.M., R. Francis-Floyd, A. S. P. Boggs, E. A. Reyier, E. D. Stolen, R. P. Yanong, and L. J. Guillette, Jr. 2015. Plasma glucose levels for red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in a Florida estuarine fisheries reserve. Florida Scientist 78(2):88-93.
Fogelson, S.B., R.P.E. Yanong, A. Kane, C.N. Teal, I.K. Berzins, S.A. Smith, C. Brown, and A. Camus. 2015. Gross, histological and ultrastructural morphology of the aglomerular kidney in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus. Journal of Fish Biology, 87:805-813.
Gardner, P.G., T.K. Frazer, C.A. Jacoby and R.P.E. Yanong. 2015. Reproductive biology of invasive lionfish (Pterois spp.). Frontiers in Marine Science 2:7.
Soto, E., A.E. Primus, D.B. Pouder, R.H. George, J. Trevor, S.E. Cassle, T. Johnson, S. Boyd, T. Handsel, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2014. Identification of Francisella noatunensis in novel host species French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium). 2014. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 45(3):727-731.
Selected Research Publications (1996 - 2014)
Bourtis, C.M., R. Francis-Floyd, E. A. Reyier, R.P. Yanong, and L.J. Guillette Jr. 2014. Development of a nonlethal health assessment for wild red drum using a health index. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 26(2):91-95.
Krediet, C.J., J.L. Meyer, N. Gimbrone, R. Yanong, I. Berzins, A. Alagely, H. Castro, K.B. Ritchie, V.J. Paul and M. Teplitski. 2014. Interactions between the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallidaand Serratia marcescens, an opportunistic pathogen of corals. Environmental Microbiology Reports 6(3):287–292.
Steckler N.K., R.P.E. Yanong, D.B. Pouder, A. Nyaoke, D.A. Sutton, J.R. Lindner, B.L. Wickes, S. Frasca, J.C. Wolf, and T.B. Waltzek. 2014. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. II. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 111(3):229-238.
Trushenski, J.T., J.D. Bowker, S.J. Cooke, D. Erdahl, T. Bell, J.R. MacMillan, R.P. Yanong, J.E. Hill, M.C. Fabrizio, J.E. Garvey, and S. Sharon. 2013. Issues regarding the use of sedatives in fisheries and the need for immediate-release options. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142:156-170.
Crosby, T.C., J. E. Hill, K. H. Hartman and R. P. E. Yanong. 2012. Effects of metomidate hydrochloride sedation on blood glucose and marketability of transported threespot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 24: 73-80.
Soto, E., O. Illanes, D. Hiltchie, J.A. Morales, P. Sunyakumthorn, J.P. Hawke, A. Goodwin, A. Riggs, R. Yanong, D. Pouder, R. Francis-Floyd, M. Arauz, L. Bodganovic, and F. Castillo. 2012. Molecular and immunohistochemical diagnosis of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) from formalin-fixed parafilm embedded tissues. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 24:840-845.
Hanson, S.K., J.E. Hill, C.A. Watson, R.P.E. Yanong, R Endris. 2011. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 23:30-34.
Crosby, T.C. , B.D. Petty, H.J. Hamlin, L.J. Guillette, Jr., J.E. Hill, K.H. Hartman, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2010. Plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and marketability of koi transported with metomidate hydrochloride. North American Journal of Aquaculture 72:141–149.
Yanong, R.P.E., D.B. Pouder, and J.O. Falkinham III. 2010. Association of mycobacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems and mycobacterial disease in fish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 22:219–223.
Hill, J.E., K.H. Kilgore, D.B. Pouder, J.F.F. Powell, C.A. Watson, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2009. Survey of Ovaprim™ use as a spawning aid in ornamental fishes in the United States as administered through the University of Florida Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory (2005-2007). North American Journal of Aquaculture 71: 206-209.
Kilgore, K.H., J.E. Hill, J.F.F. Powell, C.A. Watson, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2009. Investigational use of metomidate hydrochloride as a shipping additive in two ornamental fishes. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 21: 133-139.
Russo, R. and R.P.E. Yanong. 2009. Efficacy of vaccination against Streptococcus iniae during artificial spawning of the red-tail black shark (Epalzeorhynchos bicolor, fam. Cyprinidae). Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 21:1–11.
Russo, R. and R.P.E. Yanong. 2008. Variations in Streptococcus iniae vaccine efficacy among ornamental cyprinids. Dynamic Biochemistry, Process Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 2 (Special Issue 1), 72-77.
Russo, R., E.W. Curtis, and R.P. Yanong. 2007. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 19:121-127.
Russo, R., R.P. Yanong, and S.P. Terrell. 2007. Preliminary morphometrics of spleen and kidney macrophage aggregates in clinically normal blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) and freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 19:60-67.
Hartman, K. H., R.P. Yanong, C.A. Harms, and G.A. Lewbart. 2006. The future of training for aquatic animal health veterinarians. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 33:389-393.
Russo, R., H. Mitchell, and R.P. Yanong. 2006. Characterization of Streptococcus iniae isolated from ornamental cyprinid fishes and development of challenge models. Aquaculture. 256:105-110.
Russo, R., R.P. Yanong , and H. Mitchell. 2006. Dietary beta-glucans and nucleotides enhance resistance of red-tail black shark to Streptococcus iniae infection. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 37:298-306.
Yanong, R. P., J.E. Hill, C.J. Daniels, and C.A. Watson. 2006. Efficacy of 17-alpha methyltestosterone for expression of male secondary sexual characteristics in the swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii. North American Journal of Aquaculture 68:224-229.
Crosby, T.C., J.E. Hill, C.A. Watson, R.P. Yanong, & R. Strange. 2005. Effects of tricaine methanesulfonate, Hypno, Aquacalm, quinaldine, and salt on plasma cortisol levels following acute stress in three-spot gourami. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 18:58-63.
Yanong, R. P., E.W. Curtis, R. Simmons, V.A. Bhattaram, M. Gopalakrishnan, N. Ketabi, N.V. Nagaraj, and H. Derendorf. 2005. Pharmacokinetic studies of florfenicol in koi (Cyprinus carpio) and three-spot gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) after oral and intramuscular treatment. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 17:129-137.
Yanong, R.P.E., R. Russo, E. Curtis, R. Francis-Floyd, R. Klinger, I Berzins, K. Kelley, S.L. Poynton. 2004. Cryptobia iubilans infection in juvenile discus (Symphysodon aequifasciata): Four case reports, pathology, and treatment trials. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 224: 1644-1650.
Yanong R.P.E. 2003. Necropsy techniques for fish. In Practical Gross Necropsy of Exotic Animal Species. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, A.M. Fudge, ed., S. Echols, Guest ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. 12: 89-105.
Yanong R.P.E., E.W. Curtis, S.P. Terrell, G. Case. 2003. Atypical presentation of mycobacteriosis in a collection of frogfish Antennarius striatus. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34: 400-407.
Rothen, D.E., E.W. Curtis, R.P.E. Yanong. 2002. Tolerance of yolk sac and free-swimming fry of the zebra danio Brachydanio rerio, black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi, Buenos Aires tetra Hemigrammus caudovittatus, and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus to therapeutic doses of formalin and sodium chloride. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14: 204-208.
Yanong R.P.E, R. Francis-Floyd, E.W. Curtis, R. Klinger, M.F. Cichra, I.K. Berzins. Algal dermatitis in cichlids. 2002. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220:1353-1358.
Yanong, R.P.E. 1996. Reproductive management of freshwater ornamental fish, In Reproduction and Obstetrics, A.M. Fudge, ed., B.L. Speer, Guest ed., Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. 5: 222-235.
Craig, A.C., R.P.E. Yanong, C.L. Reinisch. 1989. Prevalence of leukemia in hemolymph of soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, in Dorchester Bay, Boston Harbor. Marine Environmental Research 28 (1-4):383-387.
Selected Extension Publications
For most recent publications please visit Roy's Google Scholar Profile.
Hill, J.E., R.P.E. Yanong, and J.M. Campos Krauer. 2022. Peces ornamentales de agua dulce comunmente cultivados en Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Publication FA237.
Roan, E.H., J.T. Patterson, M.A. DiMaggio, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2021. Third Party-Certifications in Aquaculture. UF/IFAS EDIS Publication FA233.
Francis-Floyd, R., J. Landsberg, R. Yanong, Y. Kiryu, S. Baker, D. Pouder, W. Sharp, G. Delgado, N. Stacy, T. Waltzek, H. Walden, R. Smolowitz and G. Beck. 2020. Diagnostic Methods for the Comprehensive Health Assessment of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin, Diadema antillarum. UF/IFAS EDIS Publication VM244.
Roan, E.H., L. Tiu, R.P.E. Yanong, M.A. DiMaggio, and J.T. Patterson. 2019. Overview of Urban Aquaculture. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA 217.
Watson, C., M. DiMaggio, J. Hill, Q. Tuckett, and R. Yanong. 2019. Evolution, culture, and care for Betta splendens. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA212.
Harris, H.E., A.Q.Fogg, R. P. E. Yanong, S. Frasca Jr., T. Cody, T. B. Waltzek and W.F. Patterson III. 2018. First Report of an Emerging Ulcerative Skin Disease in Invasive Lionfish. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA209.
Hesami,S., P. Viadanna, N. Steckler, S. Spears, P. Thompson, K. Kelley, R. Yanong, R. Francis-Floyd, J. Shelley, J. Groff, A. Goodwin, O.Haenen, and T. Waltzek. 2015. Carp Edema Virus Disease (CEVD) / Koi Sleepy Disease (KSD). University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA189.
Hartman, K.H., R.P.E. Yanong, D.B. Pouder, B.D. Petty, R. Francis-Floyd, and A.C. Riggs. 2013. Koi Herpesvirus Disease (KHVD). University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication VM149.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2013. Biosecurity in Aquaculture, Part 3: Ponds. USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication #4712.
Steckler, N. and R.P.E. Yanong. 2012. Argulus (Fish Louse) Infections in Fish. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA184.
Steckler, N. and R.P.E. Yanong. 2012. Lernaea (Anchorworm) Infestations in Fish. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA185.
Petty B.D., R. Francis-Floyd, and R.P.E. Yanong. 2012. Spring Viremia of Carp. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication VM142.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2012. Biosecurity in Aquaculture, Part 2: Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication #4708.
Yanong, R.P.E. and C. Erlacher-Reid. 2012. Biosecurity in Aquaculture, Part 1: An Overview. USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication #4707.
Yanong, R.P.E. and T.B. Waltzek. 2010. Megalocytivirus Infections in Fish, with Emphasis on Ornamental Species. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA182.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2010. Lymphocystis Disease in Fish. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA181.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2010. Viral Nervous Necrosis (Betanodavirus) Infections in Fish. University of Florida/IFAS EDIS Publication FA180.
Yanong, R.P.E., C.V. Martinez, and C.A. Watson. 2009. Use of Ovaprim in ornamental fish aquaculture. FA 161. Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2009. Cryptocaryon irritans infections (marine white spot disease) in fish. FA 164. Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2009. Use of copper in marine aquaculture and aquarium systems. FA 165. Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2008. Use of hydrogen peroxide in finfish aquaculture. FA157. Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Yanong, R.P.E. 2008. Use of vaccines in finfish aquaculture. FA156. Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.